The topography of Pakistan and the climatic conditions make it ideal for the use of solar energy through solar panels to the highest levels. Geographically, Pakistan lies in the Sunbelt and gets a lot of sunlight throughout the year. It is, therefore, crucial to making the most of the existing solar energy sources. Solar energy could ease the burden on the budget of the federal government which is used to import expensive fossil fuels, including oil as well as RLNG. Solar energy is restricted to solar PV and solar water heaters. It also includes solar cookers, solar geysers, or solar-powered pumps within Pakistan.
Solar PV Rooftop commercial potential in Pakistan has been estimated as 10,000MW based on the total area covered by urban settlements. Rooftop solar has been identified as a viable target for commercial, residential industry, and residential sectors. Commercial and residential sectors are at the top in terms of rooftop installations across the world.
In 2021, self-consumption as a mode of implementation will rise by many times. Tax credits, soft loans as well as DISCOs’ role in market-based mechanisms will play a major role in promoting the participation of people.
Solar photovoltaic rooftops have been identified as a viable solution to a myriad of problems that arise from fuel-based power plants and could help to reduce dependence on imports of fuel-based energy. Apart from the dependency on imported fuels, climate change risks are extremely hazy. Through which solar power could help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
It is clear that solar PV power is among the cleanest energy sources. The solar photovoltaic (SPV) power plant is made up of a variety of components i.e. photovoltaic panels, mounting system, and dc-ac converter, as well as electrical connections.
Rooftop solar panels are less powerful PV systems compared to the ones on land and are installed on the roofs of commercial, residential, or industrial buildings. It is comprised of solar inverters, meters for managing electricity generated, and various components to alter the output of electrical energy and input speed in kWp. The power generated by such systems can be connected to the grid or utilized for self-consumption using the net metering method.
The metering system has been created to encourage the self-consumption of electricity produced by the solar rooftop. Net metering allows for two-way flow electricity in which the customer is only charged for the net electricity (total consumption less PV production) provided by the relevant DISCO.
The system could be installed with a net meter integrated as well as two meters. One for export to grid power and another for self-consumption. The government has recently announced various initiatives to encourage renewable energy sources. Tax benefits for indirect and direct taxation like sales tax exemptions, excise duty exemptions, and exemptions from custom duty have been granted. Developers of projects were exempt from taxation on income results from projects.
Solar Energy Technology Evolution
Solar energy technology has made substantial advancements. It is now considered to be a viable option to meet the needs for energy in a sustainable way.
The biggest obstacles facing rooftop solar are a lack of awareness among consumers regarding the technology. The absence of production facilities absence of skilled workers as well the high cost of upfront investment. The absence of business models and regulatory issues.
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The level of awareness among consumers of the rooftop solar initiative and the market acceptance of it. It is the biggest obstacle in promoting solar energy that is causing an impact on society. In a developing country, the affordability for residential solar is less than in an advanced nation. Consumers not only have higher affordability and greater awareness of the rights of consumers and rights but also are assisted by a variety of policy tools that are favorable to consumers. In countries that are less developed, people are not as aware of the policy of the government as well as the incentives.
As the cleanest source of energy, its environmental impact is not well understood. Consumer guidance centers to inform about the function and placement of meters. The processes for metering and interconnection to the grid and maintenance are required to realize the full potential of the rooftop.
Solar Cells Solution
The solar cells can be manufactured in a variety of ways as well as inverters and storage systems to improve the efficiency of rooftop solar systems need investment in fundamental research on material and R&D. The global R&D expenditure on RE was in excess of fifteen billion dollars in the year 2017-18, with solar research being apart more than 50 percent. Solar PV’s focus is on enhancing the power output of PV cells and the efficiency that cells produce. USA, Japan, and Europe are the most important centers of R&D in solar technology and were the early pioneers too. The corporations’ R&D investment in solar power was higher than the government R&D in the past. China is the largest investor in solar R&D.
The phenomenal growth that is happening globally and the increasing dependence on imports while corrective measures are required. Pakistan must take the lead to promote the production of solar-powered equipment within the country. To achieve this it is recommended that the government finance capital at low prices for investment. That could be worthwhile to invest in.
Rooftop solar technology for rural or urban areas requires intervention
- Grid-connected solar installations;
- (ii) solar system that is synced with diesel Genset
- (iii) Solar off-grid systems with battery backup.
The design of an efficient rooftop solar system that is suited to the climate requires the basic skills of engineering. A well-designed design will incorporate the local-specific requirements with the solar rooftop systems. It is a huge opportunity to be a career-creating industry. The demand for skilled workers to install repair, maintenance and maintenance will increase in the near future.
Solar Panel Cost of Capitalization for Rooftop
The cost of capitalization for rooftop solar panels that are currently estimated to be 85,000 PKR per kW. It is a major obstacle to its widespread adoption by industry or smaller consumers. The payback time is between 7 and 8 years, and 9-10 years. In residential and commercial areas and residential sectors, respectively. The performance of rooftop solar is therefore dependent on the development of innovative business models. Those are developed periodically to break through the cost barrier. There are three kinds of commercial models that have been being considered;
- A self-owned roof owner is the one who is the owner of the PV system as well as the electricity produced. It’s called the CAPEX model, and the risk lies with the homeowner who makes the investment in the PV system.
- Third ownership by a third party, where the developer or third party is responsible for the solar rooftops. They sell them to the customer at a cost less than the grid tariff. This is known as OPEX (operational expense) model since the developer is also a renewable energy firm. It is responsible for the installation for a specified time period and also takes on the responsibility. The third-party investment model is only a 10 percent share currently in Pakistan. It’s still not picking up due to the high default risk in contracts that result from the rapid decline in costs of solar energy.
- The third option is the Lease model where the customer leases the system and is responsible for the systems over time.
Make Solar Panel Rooftop Possiblity
In order to make rooftop solar a lucrative possibility, the State Bank of Pakistan has collaborated with the bank. This is due to offer soft loans. A new business model designed for villages and rural areas will be developed to expand the reach of the best solar panels in Pakistan. The majority of losses are due to the long transmission lines that need to travel through remote villages. Which increases the price of electricity in the rural regions. DISCO or the government DISCO must bear the costs.
While there is a high expectation of growth in rooftop solar panels costs will fall in the near future. However, it should be noted that, unlike the thermal energy plants that are used for power. Solar rooftop power generation is predominantly dominated by consumers, and people’s participation.
On a national scale manufacturing capacity and investing in R&D and a more investor-friendly environment training, development of skills, high voltage connectivity to grids for a solar resource that is variable and the regulations are among the major issues to be overcome. Since the use of rooftop solar needs to increase, the manufacturing capabilities for solar modules are also established in Pakistan.
In terms of developing skills, it is able to offer working conditions for engineers, manufacturers of products, suppliers, repairs maintenance facilitators, and testing facilitators.