Historical Background of Hajj
Hajj is the fifth pillar of Islam. The term in the Shari’ah refers to visiting the house of Allah with certain acts of worship on certain days
The historical background of Hajj Baitullah is that the present place of Makkah has been the center of mankind from the very beginning because this holy place was to be the cradle of civilization, culture and knowledge and mysticism for the coming generations.
Allah’s Caliph On Earth
A man asked Imam Zain-ul-Abidin (RA): Since when is the circumambulation of Bait-ul-Allah taking place? He (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: Allaah informed the angels about making him their caliph on earth.
We glorify and sanctify you and you are making a caliph a human being who will spread mischief in the land and shed blood.
Allah Almighty said: You do not know what I know. The angels were very ashamed of their request.
He circumambulated the Throne of God three times in a state of misery and supplication. Allah, having bestowed special mercy on him, made Bait-ul-Ma’moor under the Throne and said: Do Tawaf of it. Every day seventy thousand angels circumambulate Bait-ul-Ma’mour and those who circumambulate once do not come again.
Construction OF Kaabah
Allah said to the angels: “Build my house on earth according to its likeness and quantity.” When the house was built, Allah Almighty commanded the creatures living on the earth: “Circumambulate this house as the heavenly ones do in Bait-ul-Ma’mour.”
Then when Adam and Eve came to earth, Adam (peace be upon him) prayed to God. Mawla, I have lost the pleasure and pleasure that used to come with the angels in the circumambulation of Bait-ul-Ma’mour. I wish! Let us go back there. So he rebuilt the ancient foundations according to the divine command with the help of his son Hazrat Ismail (as) This invitation is mentioned in the Qur’an al-Hakim in these words:
“And proclaim the Hajj loudly among the people. They will come to you on foot and on all lean camels (riders) who come from distant places.”
The First Hajj
The first Hajj started after the construction of the Kaaba as a result of the prophetic call of Hazrat Ibrahim (as). He (peace be upon him) under the guidance of Hazrat Jibril Amin (peace be upon him) said: Accompanied by all of them, the members performed Hajj. First, you circumambulated the Kaaba.
Then Safa tried between Marwa. Later, Mani visited him. When Satan was seen in three places, he hit him with Takbir with seven pebbles. He reached Arafat Square on foot, stayed there for the night, and from there visited Mina in the morning. Mina stayed, then after completing the rituals of Hajj, he went to his homeland Syria.
If we look at the background of Hajj in a historical context, then today we see the evolutionary form of Hajj which was performed one year after the conquest of Mecca in 9 AH under the leadership of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq. Hajj of 9 AH was performed in two ways. The disbelievers and polytheists who were present on the occasion performed the rituals of Hajj in the ancient ancestral manner. While the Muslims performed the rituals of Hajj within the limits set by Allah and the Holy Prophet (sws).
The Holy Kaabah
Thus the first sacred building built on earth for the worship of God Almighty and the first center of growth and guidance for humanity. According to the definitive text of the Qur’an al-Hakim is the Kaaba of God. The first of which was built by Adam. Peace be upon you. Later, the glorious Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him) with the help of his son Ishmael (peace be upon him) rebuilt it on ancient foundations according to the divine command.
After the arrival of Adam (peace be upon him) on earth, the land of Makkah was not only privileged to be the first center of guidance for mankind. Rather, this place was chosen as the center and starting point of the universal da’wah and preaching of Islam. The Hanif religion, which was founded by Hazrat Ibrahim (as) in the land of Kaaba. It was completed after the blessed revelation of the Holy Prophet (sws). It is as if the seed which Hazrat Ibrahim (sws) sowed in the non-agricultural field (the barren valley of Makkah), after centuries of growth, grew into a shady tree and cast a shadow over the whole world.